Choose Two Of This Articles And Response

 

Question 07

What is wrong with thinking of technology as merely material objects?

Thinking of technology as a material object is wrong due to the power that comes with technology. Technology has allowed todays society to become more interconnected and providing everyone with more knowledge then in any other time. In the chapter, it is noted the social aspect behind technology that has made it more than just an object. As stated, “not to think of technology as material objects—doesn’t even need emphasizing to  Facebook users because they think of the site not just as a material object or piece of software, but as a “social” networking site”. There are many other instances like this with other platforms such as Twitter and Instagram. These are great examples to show that by merely thinking about technology as an object is to devalue the impact that technology has on us as well as us on technology. 

 

Question 10

What is the difference between micro-level ethical issues and macro-level ethical issues? Give an example of each.

Micro-level ethical issues focus on a specific person, instead of a company or system. Micro-level ethical issues focus on the individuals actions and their choices, while macro-level ethical issues focus on companies decisions and actions. An example of a micro-level ethical issue would be a person choosing to partake in cyber bullying on a social media platform. An example of a macro-level issue would be how the social media platform decides to react to the cyber bullying. Do they change their policies to prevent cyber bullying, or do they just continue to allow it to happen since they are not the ones committing the action? 

 

Question 02

Give a concise summary of Moor’s standard account of computer ethics.

As computers evolve, they create new possibilities and opportunities for individual and collaborative human action. These possibilities and opportunities erect new ethical questions about the technology. Over time, some of these ethical questions have been solved, while others still exist and remain controversial today. New ethical questions are being created every day due to the rapid development of new technology. Moor describes computer ethics as filling policy vacuums. Brand new technology creates new possibilities, which creates a policy vacuum. These policy vacuums exist in situations where it is not clear what issue or morals are relevant. 

 

Question 07

What is wrong with thinking of technology as merely material objects?

Thinking of technology as a material object is wrong due to the power that comes with technology. Technology has allowed todays society to become more interconnected and providing everyone with more knowledge then in any other time. In the chapter, it is noted the social aspect behind technology that has made it more than just an object. As stated, “not to think of technology as material objects—doesn’t even need emphasizing to  Facebook users because they think of the site not just as a material object or piece of software, but as a “social” networking site”. There are many other instances like this with other platforms such as Twitter and Instagram. These are great examples to show that by merely thinking about technology as an object is to devalue the impact that technology has on us as well as us on technology. 

 

Question 06

“What are the two tenets of the view referred to as “technological determinism”? What is the STS critique of each tenet?

Technological determinism is a term used to describe a set of claims on the relationship between technology and society and how the integration of technology affects the development of social and cultural factors in society.

The first major claim and view on technological determinism is that technology develops independently from society. People who agree with this perspective typically agree that inventors and engineers work in isolation and the things they create are completely separate from social influences and forces. The Science and Technology Studies or commonly referred to “STS” rejects the first claim. The STS argue that the development of technology is not isolated and does not follow a natural order of development.

The second major claim is that when technology is adapted and used in society, it will determine the character of that society. The STS rejects the second claim as well because they believe that society is what influences technology. The mantra of STS scholars is: “technology shapes and is shaped by society, that society shapes and is shaped by technology”.

 

Question 11

Why is the study of ethics and technology needed? Why is the study of ethics, and IT in particular, needed?

– The study of technology is needed because technology is almost completely integrated into our daily lives and greatly influences the way we interact with the world around us. We base our decisions around the things we may see on social network sites or platforms, even if we do not consciously think about it. An example of this is seeing the trend with the ALS ice bucket challenge or the ‘Harlem shake’ videos that appeared years ago on social media. Even if a person did not plan on participating in either of those, they would see enough videos on those applications or platforms to sway them towards wanting to make a video and participate with the current social trend of that time. This is just one small example of how technology (the social platforms created for our smartphone applications) influences the decisions we make. The study of ethics integrated with technology is needed because more people are exposed to what they might see online or on their social feeds, which may also influence the way we interact with moral issues or situations. IT ethics combines the study of ethics and technology, but it is still a subset of ethics because IT is just “of many elements that come  into play in moral practices, decisions, and outcomes” (Computer Ethics). IT ethics in particular are needed to create a baseline on how moral decisions should be made in the world of technology.

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